Importance of Printed Circuit Boards

Printed circuit boards, also known as printed wiring boards or printed circuit cards, are what make enables the electronic devices that are used daily to work properly. These connect each component that makes a device work without having the hassle of setting up a complex connection of wires together. These make up the important electric circuits which makes each component work together and at the same time. If you are able to see a computer’s motherboard, you are already looking at a circuit board, but printed circuit boards are not just limited to computers; cellular phones, calculators, and other electronic gadgets that use these to make them work.

Printed circuit boards were invented during the time when electronic devices were getting more complex and wiring components together with the traditional wiring method was becoming an issue. Its development started back in the early 1900’s. In 1925, Charles Ducan was able to submit a patent for creating an early circuit board in the form of an electronic pattern printed onto a board, but in 1943, Paul Eisler was able to build one of the working printed circuit boards during that time.

printed circuit boardsWhen circuit boards were not yet under development, a “point-to-point construction” was done when assembling electronic devices. Wires are used to connect each electronic component together inside a device. These devices would end up becoming bulky and would break down easily. Repairing these devices would mostly require replacing the connectors for the cords and each component. The wires themselves would also lose their strength and can break down due to wear and tear. This will cause a short circuit with the device.

During the 1920’s, manufacturers for gramophones and radios had started to pick up the idea on the circuit board; they would take an insulated material and set it up to fit all the electronic components that they need and then the wires are attached to the bottom of the device. The wires are riveted to the bottom of the board, putting each connection in their correct places.

The use of printed circuit boards became really popular during the 1950’s and 1960’s and some inventors were able to set up additional patents to improve the efficiency of the circuit boards. During the initial development the circuit was only found at one side of the board, usually at the bottom, but after a few developments were done, multilayer boards were made, allowing more circuits to be printed with just one board.

Once the circuit board design is set, holes are set into it for the electric components to be placed into. These are called plated through holes. Once the component is set into the hole, they are then soldered in either through a machine or by hand. Each hole would have a copper ring around it, which is called an annular ring. Copper connectors are also included in some circuit boards if there ever is a need for one circuit to be connected to another circuit to create an even bigger component. V-scores are set onto the circuit board if ever there will be a time that the board itself needs to be cut or broken in certain parts. The v-score allows the cut to be done without ruining the rest of the circuit board.

Soldermarks are then used to cover and protect the copper circuits on a circuit board. When the soldermark is placed, this gives the circuit board the familiar green colour that everyone sees. Soldermarks are also used to prevent any solder jumps that might happen when a solder accidentally touches two different copper paths together.

Sometimes some components that need to be inserted into the circuit board are placed differently; slots are used if ever the components to be added do not have a rounded shape. To make the circuit board organized, a silkscreen layer is used to label each part so they can be recognized easily.

Storing Military Coins: 21 Surefire Tips That Never Fail!

Military coins are made from different materials. These materials adversely affect the coins’ appearance when the coins are stored in the wrong places.

  1. Never store the coins in the basement or attic. Those areas are susceptible to moisture, which may cause your coins to rust or fade.
  2. You should always store the coins in cool and dry areas.
  3. If the temperature in the attic or basement can be controlled, you can store the coins in those areas. Make sure that those areas are tightly sealed from outdoor air and water.
  4. If you can’t store the military coins in cool and dry areas, place packed silica gel near the coins. Moisture will be absorbed by the silica gel. Try to change the packed silica gel several times in a year so that moisture can still be absorbed.
  5. If the coins are bought in their original cases, you should keep the coins in their cases. If you lost their original cases, make sure that you purchase new cases that are similar to the original ones.
  6. Store the coins in a safe-deposit box if they become more valuable.
  7. Store the coins temporarily in coin folders that contain arsenic, dioxin, and sulfur. These elements may change the structure and color of the coins overtime.
  8. military coinsYou can store the military coins in wooden cabinets if the cabinets are made from rosewood, aged mahogany, or both. Never store the coins in wooden cabinets that are made from oak.
  9. You can store the coins in metal cabinets if you’re unsure from what wood that the wooden cabinets are created from.
  10. Try to avoid storing the coins in a plastic container that has PVC (polyvinyl chloride). PVC may stick onto the surface of the coin overtime.
  11. Place the coins in a container that has a soft surface such as the felt pad. The soft surface prevents the coins from touching a hard surface.
  12. You can store the coins in paper envelopes. But make sure that those envelopes are manufactured for storing the coins.
  13. Try to avoid purchasing paper envelopes that contain sulfur. Sulfur may change the color of the coins overtime.
  14. If you can’t find paper envelopes that don’t contain sulfur, ask a coin expert for substitute paper envelopes.
  15. Make sure that dust and air can’t enter the coin containers. Coins that are overexposed to air and dust may become coated in green or white layer.
  16. If the containers have staples, try to keep the coins from touching the staples as much as possible. The coins may become scratched by the staples.
  17. Try not to touch the military coins with your hands if they’re placed in a container when you bought them. The dirt and natural oils from your hands may discolor or scratch the coins. The scratches may only become visible when they’re viewed under a microscope.
  18. Wear soft cotton gloves if you have to place the coins in the appropriate containers. This will prevent your natural oils and dirt from touching the coins.
  19. You can touch the coins by their edges if you don’t have soft cotton gloves.
  20. Store the coins in containers that have hard and stiff plastics. Containers that have soft and pliable plastics may damage the coins overtime. This is because the chemicals of the soft and pliable plastics seep into the coins.
  21. Don’t drop the coins one by one in a plastic tube container. You must tilt the container before sliding the coins into the container at once. Carefully move the container in its standing position so that the coins can slide to the bottom of the container.

Always check the appearance of your military coins to determine if these tips have helped you. The coins shouldn’t look different from the time when you purchased them.

Long Island Real Estate for the Whole Family

If you are currently looking or have been looking for a suitable place to raise a family then you should consider Long Island real estate with lots of reasons you should settle in Nassau or Suffolk Counties. Long Island is great place to mold your family and probably stay there for good.

Family Friendly li realtors

Aside from the fact that Long Island real estate can be purchased at record low, you will also get a lot of benefits if you live there and have a family. li realtors has everything you need and more.

Giving your child proper education is not a problem in li realtors because there are 127 public school districts and private schools are nearly twice as many in both counties. Choice of school for elementary and secondary education is almost unlimited and you can be certain that your child will be able to get the right education that he or she needs. You might want to know that many schools in Long Island are recognized nationally.

There are also several reputable special education programs that you can count on in case your child needs one. It is a blessing to own a Long Island real estate property, especially if you have such case in the family.

Your entire family, especially younger children will benefit a lot from children’s museums in li realtors. There are also hands-on displays and exhibits that will allow the children to learn important facts while having fun.

Copyright (C), Multiple Listing Service of Long Island, Inc, 2004There are other beneficial attractions that will keep your children occupied while learning at the same time. Let them enjoy their time with nature, nurture their interests in aviation, introduce them to trains, and allow them to explore. There are carriage museum, amusement parks, game farm, and more.

Going to different places allow the children to broaden their horizon and, luckily, Long Island can easily provide such. Take your children on a field trip – from historical sites that played a significant role in the revolution to the abodes of poets and past presidents.

Long Island real estate is the best choice if you want to make sure about the security of your family. It has low crime rates and because of that, most people have decided to make li realtors their home. Understand that crimes happen everywhere and li realtors is not spared but the good thing about it is that crimes don’t happen almost all the time as compared to other places.

There are shopping malls in li realtors  that can easily provide the family’s needs and you don’t need to go very far just to get the best things that money can buy at very affordable prices.

Owning a Long Island real estate is the best option if you are planning to raise a family or if you already have a family of your own.

HCG hormones

After looking at the publicized results of HCG diet protocol, they are greeted with skeptic interest. In the year 1950, HCG was introduced to the world by a Dr. Simeons. The core principle of this process revolved around the 500 calorie VLCD (very low calorie diet) suggested in the book. HCG was administered into the body as injections for better results. This theory was later renamed as Simeons therapy, honoring the author who first tabled this theory. This therapy is still used by many centers to offer effective weight loss to its clients.

hcg diet dropsHCG hormones are found naturally in a human body, albeit in minimal quantities. Pregnant females exhibit higher levels of HCG in their bodies. Researchers have indicated that HCG contains the characteristics to break down the residual fats in the body, without affecting the structural mass of the user. This resulted in directing the usage of HCG in the diet plans, revealing the extensive capabilities of the hormones. For best possible results, HCG was administered in the form of injections and drops. When injected into the human body, HCG takes care of the various symptoms associated with extreme dieting. This increases the overall efficiency of any diet plan which uses HCG as its prime component. There are many examples, which prove that adding HCG to a diet plan boosts the success levels of the plan.

HCG is artificially synthesized in controlled laboratory conditions, which allows the hormone to maintain its efficiency. The use of HCG has been extended to address certain fertility issues suffered by a section of women.

The HCG diet is undertaken by a dieter under the constant supervision of a certified physician. A Very Low Calorie Diet (VLCD), when used in combination with a HCG program, gives the best possible results for any kind of body. Also, these supplements pave a path for the dieter to maintain the results obtained from the diet program.

There are many publicized positives of a HCG diet. However, these positives should not detract the users from the potential pitfalls of using the HCG diet. It is true that the diet produces amazing results and there are many success stories to attest the results. The rate of weight loss varies in between one to two pounds a day, which is remarkable when maintained for a total period of 1-2 weeks.

The dieters are advised to undergo a full medical check-up from a recognized physician before committing to the diet plan. The diet may cause a volatile change in the glucose levels of the dieter. If the dieter is suffering with previous conditions like diabetics, then the dieting may cause greater harm to the person’s health. Such situations can be avoided by taking a doctor’s permission prior to enrollment of any diet plan.

Learning How to Make Fun and Trendy lanyards

Arts and crafts have always been a very popular activity for kids (and even adults), and a great activity that will keep the children busy and creative is making neck lanyards. This activity is quite fun and can improve the resourcefulness of kids and adults, alike. Neck lanyards are generally made from one of these two materials: nylon or polyester, but since this is going to be tailored into a children’s project, plastic craft lace should be used. There are a number of ways that neck lanyards, or any lanyards for that matter, can be stitched up with the weaving technique. To learn about all the different stitches, read through the descriptions below.

Using the box or square stitch

Neck LanyardsTake two colors of the plastic craft lace at an even length. Find the center of the first craft lace and loop it twice around your index finger, then take the other craft lace and pull it under the two loops until it reaches the center. Take one end, pull it over the adjacent loop and under the other loop. Repeat this for the other end. After that, pull on all four craft laces so that the checkerboard pattern can appear in the middle of the crossed laces.

Once you have that starter stitch, you will see that you have a left strand, a right strand, a top strand, and a bottom strand. Make those parallel loops again using the second craft lace and follow the same looping procedure as before. Remember to pull tight at the four strands after every completed loop.

Using the triangle stitch

This stitch requires three different colors, so take three strands of equal lengths and tie them in one knot, leaving at least an inch on the end, then turn it over so that the bottom of the knot is facing you and spread the strands apart. Select one strand to be the top strand and loop it over the next strand on the right. Take the strand that the top strand just looped over and then loop it over the third strand. The third strand will then be pulled through the first loop made by the top strand. Pull all three strings to secure the first stitch. To make the second stitch, use the top strand to weave it over the third string, then the third over the second, and ultimately the second string will be pulled through the top strand’s loop. Keep alternating the stitches.

Using the circle or barrel stitch

Similar to the box stich, the circle of barrel lanyard uses two colors and even length strands. The techniques are almost the same, but instead of making those parallel loops, the strand will cross over diagonally. Keeping that in mind, you should be able to make a lanyard in that barrel shape.

Using the cobra stitch

This also requires two strands, but one has to be about three times the length of the other. Bend them both in half and pinch them so a crease can be seen at their centers. Place the shorter piece, still pinched, at the center of the longer piece. The longer piece forms the left and right strands while the two center pieces will just remain as is. The right strand goes across the center strands, and then the left strand goes over the right.

Next the left strand is weaved under the center strands and back up through the loop, and tightened to make the first stitch. After that, do the same thing but start off with the left strand, and alternate for each stitch (technically each tie). The lanyard will technically only be in one color, with the other color only seen at the ends of the lanyard.

Use these stitches to make neck lanyards, lanyard bracelets, or simply as lanyard key chains. This is a crafty activity that both kids and adults will enjoy, no matter what kind of lanyard they make.

Wholesale Lanyards offers an amazing range of top-quality neck Lanyards.

Business Meetings in Golf Shirts

One of the most popular sports among very important people, like CEO’s, politicians, and military officials, is golf. In fact, it has been part of their culture to talk about business and improve relationships during a game or two. Despite being in comfortable golf shirts and khaki pants, the intention is often more than casual.

If you happen to be one of the lucky employees or staff invited over for a round, it is important to note that you will be included in something important. Therefore, unlike a basketball or football game where you can virtually wear almost anything as long as you get to play well (unless it’s a professional game, of course), golf is confined to a series of clothing restrictions. Treating it as an extension of a business meeting, where you will have to look presentable, is actually a more apt way of viewing this rather fancy sport. Take note, however, that this is not simply because you get to play with your superiors, but that the private country club where you will most likely be invited to will have a dress code.


golf shirtsThe first thing you need to know are the proper tops. Golf shirts aren’t that difficult to find, especially nowadays where the lines separating fashion and sporting apparel are blurring. However, if you still feel unsure about it, you can always go to pro golf shops. They will always have sets that follow professional standards, so you can never go wrong when opting to purchase your shirt there.

If you will notice, golf shirts always have collars, whether for men or women. Turtlenecks are also generally accepted, but it is best layered with a vest or sweater. Jackets can also work for golfers as long as these are light and do not compromise mobility.

To help you make better decisions, you might as well know the greatest offenses in golfing attire. Tops that you should not wear at all are T-shirts, halters (for women), and tank tops. As for layering, jackets made with denim are big no-no’s.


Again, if you are unsure about this, it’s best if you consult with a pro golfing shop, although there is a huge chance you already have one or two pieces lying around inside your closet when it comes to bottoms. Therefore, it’s best if you rummage through your dresser first and see if you have one that does not break any of the golden rules of golfing attire than to buy a new one.

Some of the general rules you just have to keep in mind are as follows:

1. If you will wear shorts, make sure the length is just above the knee and no shorter (This rule applies to both men and women.).

2. Whether you are wearing pants or shorts, it must have belt loops.

3. Denim is not appropriate in golf.

4. Female golfers are allowed to wear skorts (shorts and skirts combined) and golf dresses.

5. Wear leather belts with silver tips, if possible.

6. Sweats, other athletic pants, and sun dresses are considered inappropriate.


It is inevitable that you will have to buy golf shoes, but you also need to bring regular ones for when you head down to the country club for a cold drink and a small chat with your boss. There really isn’t a general rule as to what golf shoes should be bought and avoided since most of them follow the international standards.

The last few things you need to know about golfing attire is how to combine them. Golf shirts will be available in a variety of designs and patterns, and you have to choose wisely on how and where to match them. Just think of how you would match a tie with a shirt for an interview, and you’ll do just fine.

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